Reviews (page 2)

Review of: The Calendars of Megalithic Malta by C.R. Sant; Published: Malta (2015)


Carmel Raymond Sant offers us a detailed study of the ancient temples of Malta and their calendrical function.


The temples of Malta and Gozo date from the Fourth Millennium BC and predate the Egyptian dynasties and their pyramids. Sant shows with convincing reconstructions that the temples were ‘horseshoe-shaped’ chambers aligned on the equinoxes, enabling the calendar date to be read from the walls; he even offers a model of one of them as a camera-obscura. He then analyses the various temples and their evolution from the earlier Ggantija phase of the fourth millennium BC through changes to the Earth’s rotation around 3000 BC to the later Tarxien phase, with revisions to the temple orientations. A further strand is the mythology of the ‘two ladies’ statuette from Xaghra and its connection to the agricultural cycle that underlies the ritual calendar.


Following the principle of two-good – two-bad, the positives are firstly that, as the local ‘man-on-the-spot’, the author is able to visit and study the Malta temples with ease; and secondly to provide some excellent colour diagrams that supplement the data in the conservative archaeological reports. His calendrical theories and reconstructions therefore give a unique new insight that is not available from the pure archaeology.


The negatives are that the work is difficult to use as a research-tool due to the lack of an index and sometimes it is not clear which temple he is describing. Secondly, when Sant moves on to consider the ancient astronomy he cites some dubious pseudo-science papers; and authors such as Velikovsky, Hapgood, Warlow, Flem-Ath and the unpublished Dodwell manuscript. I don’t like to make this criticism, having been myself so-often accused of it, but in this case I think it is justified. This criticism should not detract from the excellent reconstructions of the Maltese temple calendars that make this book well worth consideration.


The book is self-published and may be purchased via Amazon at:


(December 2019)



Tags: Atlantis, Plato, Calendars, Malta